BD 100 127

FL 005 066






Leslau, Wolf

Basic Awharic Dictionary: Aoharic-English,

English-Anharic. Final Report.

Institute of International Studies (DHEN/OE) ,

Washington^ D.C.


Nov 72

OEC-9-097731-3330 672p.

HP-$1.C5 HC Not Available from EDPS. PLOS POSTAGE ♦Amharic; *Dictionaries; English; Etymology; Letters (Alphabet) ; Orthographic Symbols; ^Reference Books; ♦Semitic Languages; Spelling; Word Lists; writing NDEA Title VI


This basic dictionary, ct insisting of two sections, Amharic*English and English-Amharic, is the first such dictionary written since 1920. Since there is a considerablva lack of consistency in Amharic spelling, the Amharic orthography used here has been standardized through etymological studies. Whenever necessary, English expressions are given in parentheses to restrict or clarify the meaning of an entry. (PHP)


c.« ft

|l I Project No.: 9-7731



In 0 0

Contract No.: OEC-f»-0')7731.-.33:iO

Wolf LPS 1 at!

University of California

Los Angeles, California 90024

Pasic Ambaric Dictionary:

Anhar ic-Lugl i sh, InnV i sli-Amha r i c



November 1.972

vi' U.S. DEPARTMEST Or lirAnTll, r.WCATlO!!, AND wn.rARE


Office of Lducation Institute of International Studies



riNAi. Rr:rcKr

rro.jpct No.: o«77.*n

Contract No.: Ot:C-9-097731-.3330

WdI 1" Leslau

I'.nivrrsfiy of Calil'oniia

Los Angc? 1 OS , Ca 1 i i'o rn i a 90024

IJasio Amharic Dictionary: Amhar"ij~Eniilish, r.r»«*1 ish-Amharic

November 1972



^ho research reported herein was performed pursuant to a crontract wUh the Oi rict* of Kniical ion, U.S. De partment of !fealth» rdicatioa, and Welfare. Conl ractors undertakinp; s?uch projects under GovornTnent sponsorship are encouraged to express freely their professional .iudpnent in Ihe conduct of the pro.iect. Points of viev; or opinions stated do not, therf lore, necessarily represent official Office of Education position or policy.

U.S. DnpAR'iMnNT or

HCALTf!, EDUCATION, AND WLLI'ARE Office of Education Institute of International Studies


^ AiRharic in tho naliona]. Iftnguaec of Ethiopia. Tho international lant''.aaj'.o of Kthiopia is Kn{;lir.h, Yet there is no adequate A.-nharic-Kn^Ush, nor un KaLO.ish-Amh'U'ic dictionary. The latest dictionaries in Aniimric of scientific character ai'c tho follo.;ine: I. Guidi, Vocabolario Amarico- Ital5!.ano, Home IfOl (an Airharic- Italian dictionary); J. Baoteman, Dictionnaire amiricna-fran^ais, Dire-Daolta, 19^9 {^^ Amliaric-JYench dic- tionary); K. Ganl'dn, An Amharic-Russian dictionary, Moscow 19^9»

The only Ar.iharic- English dictionary is that of C. H. Arnbruster, Initia Anibarica. Part IIX. Cambridge, 1920. This dictionary, hov?ovcr, is lnco*r.i>l.otcj indfjcd it contains only the first five letters of the alphabet.

Tho dictionaries from foreign languages into Amharic are: a Frcnch- Ar.haric index in the above -mntioned J. Baeteman's dictionary. There is an Italian-Aniharic dictionary by L. Fusella and A. Girace, Diaionario pratico e fracario per convcrsaxionu italiano-araerica, Napoli 1937. A Russian- Aaharic dictionary was published by E. Gankin in I965. English-Amliaric dictionaries are those of C. H. Armbruster, Initia Araliarica, Part II, I9IO; and of C. H. V/alWor, Snalish-Araharic di ';ionary, I98O.

Since these publications (with tho exception of the Amharic-Russian and Ru3oian-A.r.harlc dictionary), Aniharic has developed considerably. The jn-cc^ross that Kthiopia has ir.T'.de in tho field of education, the literary documents of the last 50 yoars, tho technical needs for new expressions, , vhe contact with the V.'cijtorn world, and the natural development within the .lan.'-u?{:o itr.clf hiiv j contributed tjrcatly, not only to the onrich:r.rnt of the lanr,u:ir',o, but alwo to th.o nur-.orou?: changes within the existinf^, vocabvjlary. A few ox. U;'.pl OS tak'jn frca Anr.bruntcr 'r. dictionary will illur.tTiite the


ch:\n,:o« in i\^ uxprcysluns. Thua "addreoo" is rendered by Armbrustcr as ptAl) isi; the prosont-day N 6''f} •'banlt"*'l3t>2j:71,^ as anainsfc q^i'H J %ioycio"(l'/C;^i]V-t',^fN^^« aijainafc l7.rt.'f)Wi "ciiiirette n<3)/,«}>V. h\/n«if';i;i% -If-JD^, P.S oa:dnsi. r'/./^;^-; "{;e:K»ral'^<',,(>y|^.^f^us OL:ainflt,<\,t ^'i^J . "story of the house" Al,*n ft; rJast many more.

NoeviloGS to say, nt Ai.mbruster 's tir.e there was no need for expres- sicns such as "United I.'utions, Trusteeship Coramittce, Security Council, control towor, review of books, agenda, airlines, basketball, elevator," and .'JO on,

Likcv\ce in the Ajnharici foreign lansuages dictionaries (again with tho eKcc'ptioa of the A:;:h;U*ic-Rassian dictionary) one' will not find the exprccjjilcn'i cr idicr.;S uycd in everyday writing or in everyday speech. Thus, vhi3 ^ the root ML HI is i.'.eationed in the dictionaries of Baeteman and Guidi, the e.jrday uHacjc in writing or in speech 'HC7/C"list, detail," nT/C1-/C "minutely, item by item" is not r.'ientioned. Likewise, one would not find in tho above-r.iontioned dictionaries expressions of everyday usage such as i^ij "responsible, head of a firm"; </i.'^-n "arithmetic"; Jje^VWe"; /n>J[^6l>^ "t::eroise (in a textbook) " J ?iht^ C> "opi>^>icn, point of view"; Ot^^ "especially, in parlicu.lar ," (even though the root is given in the dic- tion?irics);''n'j^»>j'.'loAit^y larne, more or less"; fiX^Jii /"change in money"; 0JjG1>^*^J"a3)plication (request)" ; C^i^tja "iu.w.urate, dedicate"; "civilizHt.i:.:i";rinfV"]"r.c:-yion, anKcmbly, conference," and many more. As a result of the inadequacy of the exldting dictionaries, the student is greatly handicapped in his studios. The present dictionary is int'^nded to r»:::-. :<ly U.u .ntiiation. Since fchio is only a basic dictionary, there is no nood to strc'js the fnct that the ror;:C'dy can to only partial. There is still an urgent need of a co:..i>loto Amharic-F;(i;5lish dictionary.

As is well luiown, ihc Amharic alphabet has various loiters that are. identical in the prcnuncintion. This is a ease of ?\ and 0, both letters being Yov;ei carriers and no longer consonants; {J, fh\ and *^ pronounced h;


r*i andU.' pi'ciounccd ft and Q pronounced s. As a result of the merging of these letters, there is consideiable lack of consistency in the Amiiaric spollint;. The principle adopted in this dictionary, is that of etymologies. In tho case of and 0 , Gecx as well as Tigre and Tigrinya and the other Semitic laugi*aeos could be u:Jod as source for correct spelling. In the case of U (hV/h (h) S (h), only Geez (and Arabic) could be used as a guide since Tigro ind Tigrinya kept only \) and ff^ , this last sound representing a laergcr of and . Likevisc for ft and VJ as veil as for ft and 0 , Geez alone could servo as source of information, since :.n both Tigre and Tigrinya, rt and 1}J are rtiprcsjcnted as £, and ^ and (3 have merged into s. It is on the , basis of this principle that I adopted "spelling such as tl©^"" (Geez P^|> ), O/i'C'W' (G.fl/.f/: "sister" (G. V?? ), 5'/^? "three"

(G.U>;^r>''/.*),^^^V'baby" (G. ^, ^ ^ ), "K "things, package" (Tigrinya JS^'^ ), and so on. I/rss gonorally accepted spellings are those of O^is."^ouole," 0(?Tl>^"inow," 0*^^*5 "wood," but hore again the spelling with £} was adopted because these roots have an H as first radicp.l in Qoezi U^LyX^Qt^* ii rosj^ectively.

Ktymologicr.l spellim; is also used in Arabic loanwords . Thus, /fl^fl "bill," Arabic uAl...-L.;W'>U<)''>"'ioctoi;," Arabic ^gsfSx- iVV''^ "aim," Arabic <?!/>>0*; 0| ?|.'j(j"obJocb, purnvxto," Arabic "^'^^^ "■

i'h'j stanclu: •. l.^ia'oion of filing through etyi.oiOjiy is not intended to diflroD'-rd the ac'.oal pronuaication of a lexeme. Thus, for instance, the verb



'for "K? V :t out" pronounced vufcta, with final t. and Is t.iorofore writ- ten (vilb. nml not it vculd be if one adhered strictly to the

orifji" of the verb, Gee2^f,7, . Likewise, the verb "he is" is pro- nounced a\lJl»/with an ^u^'-.ial n. It is therefore written and not if one wevL! to consider the origin of the vorb, nanoXy Gcoz . Or, the adjective "new" is pronounced addls with an initial vowel u. It is there- fore w"ition'A/*;.hand not /,SA.'^Jif one had to co back to its origin, namely Gecss A^ f^Jh . ' '

In roots for which here is no corresponding ?Jthiopic or Soinitic ctyjnolosy, I adopted for an initial vowel, U f or h (except in "water"), for s, ;^JK{ for s. *

Obscrvat.ions on the arranf^cmeni. and definitions

The letters that have some sound in presunt~day Ainharic are put

together. ThurfU,/f) and j OJ and j A. and Q ; (\ and Q .

The order of the entries is according to the consonant, and not

according to tha vowel of the fi^'st consonant. Whenever the conoonants of

the entry are the sa:.;i.', the avrunijerient according to the traditional

order of the Anharic vocalic systcia. Thus, for instance, ^) before

and ^'f before . '

In the verbs, the entry is that of the perfect, 3rd masculine, singu-

lar. It is translated by the English infinitive wil.hout "to."

Only th'i derived stems whose moaning is not automatically to be

deduced from the basic ctc:!^ is given in the dictionary. Thus, for instance,

no 'h^fiteia jy c.ivon if Jin raeaning is that of the paEsivc of the tian-

ritivo verb, 'ih-jirofor" no I?)*!*} is given as a derived stem of hTj "moasure,"

Q i^irice' the sltulent Knov/.i that *l'}yY\ i.-.cans "l^e r/.'asured," par.sive of the AC '



'iranpillvo verb /^vj 'Wasuro/' On the othor hand, f'/'^/]^ is Riven since out-' side oV" it- pansivo meaninc "be broken," it also means "break" (intransitive).

For the ty])>?s, o.ily type B is niarkec? by (b). A vert ithout the sjinbol (») is of I'ype A.

All tho verbal and noininal derivations are given under the entry. Thus, for i.istance, under verbal derivation o.f » nominal

dorviations of » ^^''iflj^*"^ f a^^^i given. Wherever a derived form way

not bo easily recognizable, it is taken up independently with reference to its root. Thus,'JT>'^/l]J"drawer" is given under r'/D ^^Ith the indication that its root is

V/horevor a derived form has subdivision, it is marked by . Thus, ''*r'^ ri"cbject (in granmar)" given under '^H is jr.entioned independently af ft\fl vith the subdivisions of /rtri'.t'^a"direct object" and KCfUj if ''in "indirect object."

A verb that does not occur in the ba.jic stern is marked by *. The root Is.tWcn followed by tho actual stem. Thus *(;i>jf^1<j^iS'r^rt^y thank, to be gratoful"; *^^Ll/^>^H "^ake, do," and so on. '

The En;',lish cxiiressions In parentheses restrict the meaning of the entry. Thu5 , f '^5/)';-"argf . (in court ) <jp>'9|/,^"nur.3o (vho takes care of chil- dren ),"?>r;]i: :J^ri1V.jl/7<=o.'npact (report) i"nO»5, "blow open (the door)," flTlA "contaminate (a well)." The expression "of" followed by a noun indicates that the noun is the subject of the verb. Thus, ^/^H,,i^!^/^^6s"2cent about (of doz)" indicates that "scent about" refers to the dog as the subject.

In the Ennlish-Amharic dictionary likowi.'-e the expression in jjaren- theses d'M'i.nes cloj-er the main entry. Normally, an adjective as main entry is e>:pl:d.acd by another adjective, as in "able" (capable )^ or (ccnpotontly done); or by a noun lo which it refers, as in "coarse" defined by (cloth),

or (c- or (siand). A ti'ansltivc vorb as main entry is closer defined

* ' *

by the direct objeot put. in ixxrcntheses; sec "beat" defined by (the voods)j "charr.ts" «3ofirod by (uionoy), or (battery). One verb is defined by another verb; see "ch.icl^" deilnct^ l-y (examine), or (mark vith check). Like in the Aifi}iaric-K'.;.:lii.h diotionary, an intransitive verb followed by "of" vith a noun indicates that tho noun is the subject of the intransitive verb; thus, "" (of turn), or (of iioliday) indicate that "turn" or "holiday" are sub* jccts of the verb "coae."

List of Abbreviations

adj. w udjcctive adv. « Pdvcrb conj. « conjunction n a noun prep, ss preposition V «= verb vi. ~ iii "-ansitive verb vt* « tranGioivo verb


+ indicates an entry that has subdivisions and is mentioned in the appropri- ate place. * * .


sound (of fietters) O /y* every all, everybody

U'/)-5f^ all of them« everything U- A* everybody

U-h- '.hlC everything U-tTLH} always, every time, perpetu- ally, all the time (9* '.(JL^f- everyone, everybody ^^ halleluiah

Hht'.Ji-^ halleluiah behind in the back, late, afterwards

% \>\*7) \^ later, behind,

in the back of

later on, afterwards; then (after that), behind Y)... n';|2,?j behind, after (place, time)

71+ perfect +01^^ after (conj.) ri\}^ behind

11-!^7i«.nn./i in the rear n^t]!^^ behind, from behind tl— --n^tij^) behind, from behind.

Y)'-^-' ©^'."S^/j from behind a-ji^)^ hind, back (adj.)

f<&,V'^^ in the long run, sooner or later ^ ^1»,?L> back (adv.) ^backward, in the back, on the back

latter (adj.), posterior posterior, latter, rear (adj.)

retrograde rhj(^^dream, fancy (see h^ot^) 0A> two

U-?^^ + (fiuffix pronoun) two of . . . , both of ... {yi)t twice U- hi^p both

l>/i>-.rtOi?- eight o'clock U-?^> -Ta twice C^At^ second, another time O-ht'^'. .^l2i*.)5^VC>-.fl>secondary school

second (prize) conscience Vt^Sh^ being (the fact of being) Sh^ theory

from the back, after (Di2,'.'J[^>l backward, backwards, behind "S^ transient, transitory,



ephemeral ( see ^ ^ )

MAj-'^H) P*s^ in.), past tense

^l'?; auction

responsible* curator* head (of ^hL*^ shoot* kind of creeping /V^^

a firm); see also h^L ■*J^Lh> responsibility* charge (responsibility) ihf^lh «yuly

^(TD^^ illness* ache* sickness* disease* ailmenr (see )SWfft>) ^^^P'- sick leave ieee ^ rK<n>^f? sick

/f><">C ark

^fp^t pink

^)C^f| Thursday (see also "h^h) ^JOi*) fifty (see Silsohp^)

?-^5&'*|: <S/^</> sergeant •'K^''J>> slander (n.)* calumny (see/S<^) bile, gall (see also ^f>> ) fOf . i^rtrt his courage failed

f/'iS<p>: A.? gall bladder If^iTi^ be sour* sour* vi. (of milk);

see also Th^f^n\

kypCt)ff^ sour* acid

d) n silk

i^fhC silken

silkworm ii^^C intense heat (see 7\UL)

rngi vine; phrase; line of a poem; clause in a sentence; pattern (of rug)

opinion* point of view* idea* notion* thought, concept* stand (position)* mind (opinion) proposal* proposition* worry* concern (see hf^H) Mf^'^klr^ determined (h'^n '-'^ft: headstrong* intransigeant* willful n/h')-f]'.i'^OH daydream tnJ^-./h'^f^leading idea* motif ( see )

^^C^i^'^f) decision di^-f] arithmetic* mathematics* calculation* figure (number * bill (account)* check (bill).* account (report of money spent)* checking account /h. ^"ifl 0 f accountant ( see 0 0<fl A. '^ n-.^ 7? bookkeeper ie^e.^H ) S^f^il'.iron'^-n accounts ^Srt) falsehood, lie.

X ^ii)r^r£raudulent« fake (adj*)

<iir*2f? untruthful, false (friend)

\j>ht;i'^ hospital

ifhr:^^'nq be hospltallaed ^ truth

just (righteous) « truthful, honest, straight (in business), square (deal)

fh4'^h} honesty (fairness),

integrity, probity

Cih^'^^'f ethical (behavior) ih-^l/h-n melon, watermelon dt-t}^ necklace, chain (around the


''i-fi.C combination (see also

'^-n/.'V'^-^^J^C ^social studies L\ VT,-f] constellation

("^l-nL'^-il social

S'*iriL''h'iT}[: pun (see 'fR ) il'^i^,^' alliance, unison, coalition,

union (see also *^]flC )

'^jfl/W* society (all the people)

H'^-riil hand-in-hand) , in concert O^f^i Ethiopian, Abyssinian (see

also hrv'l ) U-ri> wealth, riches, fortune (wealth)


property, possession, affluence » treasure! produce (of a country), resources (wealth) ^AViif owner (seef^A ) fU-n} '-p/ti economics ( see !f^a\i^ )

ifltt^C^'-Ui]} natural resources (see -tkCUL^)

U-TM/O rich, wealthy, well-to-do LPit\ hotel

commentary, version (account); see htt

(hijf' f^^ commentator ( see rt^Ti J CP'} be, become, happen, turn out, turn intc (7See::al^O rjaM^'i^:::):.

tP7n1> he has to, he must iPyP anyhow, yet (however), nevertheless tPV.f7/V> intentionally, deliberately, purposely, consciously ?iOT)(/'/. by the way P)^\tliP) in any event, whatever happens ft "ij^ still (nevertheless) , notwithstanding TlWj granted that




{%^S\ * pronoun or noun '¥7)if) accordlna to« as in ^K) ^^,'*7\lP^ according to me) f (F f nevertheless , anyway (ifiO^'-LP? be that as it may whatever happens « at

all events

nevertheless ^ conjecture; about

i approximately) {^"tj: t^iP^i\ this will do) S^'^^^lf] impossible

H) in any case iJ'S,j' circumstance « way (condi

P ^'^ iJ^ f medical < school ) (ihUpht medieal (profession)

violence « insurrection, disturbance^ agitation^ unrest* clamor « trouble « riot ^9 Q-rij^

uproar « turbulence « racket « tumult (^iU Jkt (fr}>) /^^^ money order « draft <of bank) MO'f^^ monument « statue « obelisk* stela

. <r&irtrLj '.^(SV^ftV memorial (n.) apostle sense (power to feel)

tion)« state of affairs* status* situation (condition* state)* event* attitude* position* manner* mopd

^^A^ manner of being* essence*

condition* state of affairs U''l,;^see C?^ (j-^? honest (judge) (t\'\9\ structure* edifice* building <\\yiC'^ physician, doctor (see }\Ti(r^)

My\f^\ri)r hospital

medicine (doctor's art)*

treatment (of disease)


^ atmosphere

population* people* crowd* mob^ ^^\\it\'c (,\^ public.^(n*4.

f (r'.pM<*n crowd* masses secular (court), public (adj*)* popular

( (hH'Cl'.^'^i^C ^^^^^^^^ anthem ^'H'^/*? public (adj.)* civic (duty)* civil (liberties) /f)Hi sadness* compassion, sorrow* grief* affliction (see ^H^) ^d\H') mournful <^^'hJi' pity


4hh]f') mourner i/^ twenty

'^l^^i power, force, strength, might, impetus, intensity, action (effect) ( n vehemently , strongly, furiouslyl f?ii'fl'-'^fiair force ( armed forces 1i ^ omnipotent, almighty.


'^i ;? \ V omnipotence tlr.? powerful, mighty, strong, terrific, violent, intense, ardent, severe (judge, winter), sharp (pain), extreme (heat), fierce (heat), high (fever), harsh (words) , heavy (drinker) vehemence, strength U Of,** faith, religion

sectarian (dispute)

V I f t ■• ^- f^i irreligious ^.^^ci^'^t'f religious, pious

« lake

vTrJ.Y -.q/liT lagoon i] , C- immortal ( ad j ) , alive , living

^^O-K^ immortality (see d^t

^ ?> ^ ^ lif e , exi stence ( see ^ ^(|>. ) ^Jl'^t^ '-^/'/* l^B^ consciousness

give one's

life (see hhL\ ff"hf/G>>'.>6fl biography, memoirs

'.frtifT life insurance H?^ <g J, ^ 5- eternity ^ J'O;^^ animated 4»A go, depart, leave, go away )S^^ thresh grain

make to go, lead (of a way, a road), drive away t'nW»^ get on (of work) ^ ^1 H> manage , admini ster , conduct (affairs), run (a business), ha«^dle (affairs), operate (a factory), carry out <^H^J2; departure manner of walking, gait.

procedure; i^o^ an affair or project iiviixU


administrator, manager, director If^ stomach, belly, abdomen




U^A- .7>,e,L4 constipate {

an*} colic, stomach ache (see <^^La\)

[P.^ 0?: C «if» > constipation

f if r^: abdominal

(IFS^'^t^ entrails

tP'^^J'^ glutton, corpulent -^j C November /fj^^^i^rail

C^Ji^Ju^-mijer railroad U-^,j?j^Lent (see also ^^^^2^^

^^'^j*^ margin

law, rule (of law, of grammar), legislation, dogma, doctrine (of church), measure ( legislate V^^ enactment)


(see L,^,flk)

rightfully n^'^'-h^^Ti in the name of the law

legal, legislative, judicial (reform) Crtfl'.L^^ bill (in law)

of Depulfi^

f V/C: a5- Senate

tfh"^ '. hS>-^'' "^^iJAlegistrature (!h1''Df<l^ jurist, lawyer (see P )

^7 IB legitimate, rightful, lawful* juridicial, valid (will 'hP^ *. O IrTi heir apparent ^P?^'i> legality

ii^^ hhnqu prosecutor (see nnt ) U1 C see ^ilC

rh'^l'h ' hhtinU restore order }Ul''h^n^ legislate (see ©/7J )

lawgiver,' legislator, judiciary, lawmaker (see OfFj ) ihl\C/ifl lawless (TO charter 1 ^Vlt*' \ constitution

continent sinner (see also ) 1^^)S>evil (n.), sin (n.) sinful act (see 'i>*^)\) 'ht^M'-Wir- sin (v.)

slaful mailt sinner t evil (adj.)

^>n'.fi;<Tl iHegal, irre<jular (see tf^ ^ (pi.^^f baby. Infant (see




childhood, babyhood

f^h^Vi>'-iH infancy f^'i'}t-!f disgrace (see hh,l^) i'i)r^L'i^'t^p genitals

!\ to, for

R\ (imperfect) in order that, in

order to, so that

^ •¥ imperfect ft be about to

( A.%^-.\($)- he is about to leave) night(see also A?" )

h vT ir whetstone 'TSThh A.if'X '^^r A". A,A.>midnight

/IU^Tp drivel (n«), spit (n«), spittle, thh^l' nocturnal

A/} J? elsewhere (see

T) BL6id6 from, outside

of, besides' (prep*), other


T}KHj ./b^ beside this 7? it ^(fZ> :^;] besides tadv*), moreover Aft , see vassal

saliva, froth (on the mouth of a dog)

pearl; knob (on the top of the flagpole); globe

be slack (rope), slacken (vi*), be loose, relent, loosen (vi*)

soften, slacken (vt*), loosen (vt*), relax .C\ft loose, soft, lax, lenient, indulgent

A^*'}f lenience, lenient attitude ?i,r^ other, another, different.

?/^/l>'.fi)^ bat

fructify, vi* (of ground) # be verdant, prosper, thrive (see also ) ^/l<^^ cultivate (trees) * develop (land), make to prosper flourish

fertile, rich (soil), productive (soil), prosperous ^^^t development (of land) prosperity

?\p',> fertility (of soil) Pjcobe reduced -to a fine powder.

further (adj*)

I^C- anybody else, someone else be soft, be tender to')'. Of anywhere else ^<j;)cow

17 . '



A*^^ lime (fruit), lemon ^»c^j in n-^inY'./f*^^ kneecap )\<fiij^^ barely, a touch of (see iS^^/^) ^O^O send forth leaves, be verdant,

be green (see also )

)SA«*A«t; make verdant

hph^ green ( leaves ) , tender .

(leaves), lush' (grass) , fertile,


fj^^ffi^ fertility, exuberant vegetation Si f r (*« I uncircumci zed

development (of land), prosperity (see )

beg, beseech, pray (ask), entreat, supplicate, adjure, invoke, implore, plead, appeal (request) , urge

^♦J** 7 begging, entreaty, request, supplication, plea -p h^i ; beggar , mendicant

/|fl;>.»7 specimen, sample (see also f^^'D ^,;'v',f fertility (of soil); see ^fAJ^} why? (see )

i beggar, mendicant (see Ac»*i ) /i^^.^,be accustomed, adopt habits, get

into the habit,, be habituated,

be used to, adapt to, acclimate

learn (get used to)

fh^S^ be customary, be usual

f^^Ji^ adjust oneself, adapt


^^Cftjl^ accustom, domesticate, accept (include into a group) f^^cd^, familiarize oneself, be acquainted (with work), practice, rehearse (a play) )S h ^^9Ji^ accustom , acclimati ze , exercise, vt« (horses) h^}^ tame, tamed, accustomed t^^JL^'. JS A LI domesticate

custom, habit, usage, practice, routine, way (custom) manners, convention

habit, experience (n.) ^ /(^.seasoned ( troops )

^$^PJ^t ^^^^^^^^ (military)^

experience, practice, drill,

maneuvers (of army)

ti^Jli^^ chronic

^ly"^')' hardened (criminal)

^^/>,oi>JI exercise, n. (of a book)


f?\^?«/?' apprentice i^tA^^^, accttstomedf habitual* familiar « customary « usual « ordinary* characteristic (habitual), common, normal (temperature), natural (voice), regular (price) ^^t?^^;^ extraordinary, anomalous, strange (behavior)

h*pji^ kind of cloak worn by boys and made of sheepskin, mantel of cloth or lion skin worn in battle

?)Jd,Ti(B) grease, smear,' daub

Ao-^V) plain (embroidery), smooth, polished

^^n)> iS^,^^^ chew (gum), munch (on a cookie), masticate

i-h^i^m coax •f h ^ to> flexible (stick)

subservient iJ^^i^cTilimber (branch) leprosy

lick (see also ^pT^^ 'tongue*) V?- X^aniap up hthnTt be soft, be smooth, become supple

hh]'lhn soften, loosen (the soil), smoothen, mellow (the character)


hfihh'')^h be moderate (reply), be gentle (sound) ^h^l^) soft' (cushion, ground), smooth (stone,, disposition) » sleek, mild (tobacco), tender (meat), dainty (dress), fluffy (pillow) ^h^^\9f^aii^soft drinks hh>^fh delicacy (delicate quality)

hht\h soft, mild, delicate ?Lh)C shoeshine boy ^^if) elastic, rubber band*

tube, garter Ms (B) plaster (v.)

i)h'\ plaster (n.) h^'\ language

t\')h'»M't^ Amharic, lit. language of the ICLng

scholar, expert, learned person^isee^^-^C:) ["fez ?L *J> •. <^Jt)7t'n archangel PL •. ^d'l n C chairman h.^ ^oinC'i > chairmanship ^) head priest (see

^4*' ^^fi archbishop



BEsr COPY mmii

preeminent, be more than, be professional mourner

ediead of

Increase, raise foremost, eminent *A.c^ scholar, expert, learned person, chief

eminence, preeminence ^-^if distinction (excellence), scholarship (possessbx) of knowledge)

more, farther ^t* stray (cattle); see ^4>A4 soil, stain; whitewash, rinse (clothes)

^h^h'i rinse (dishes, clothes)^ wash (clothes) h)>h^ soiled, dirtied

glean, gather (wood), pick (fruit), peck (grain) « pasture 4^ take to pasture, make to graze

ft^jp. J^j^'C**) head and all * A<j>rt, hh'^h weep, cry, lament, wall, mourn a dead person

lamentation, wall, crying, mourning



let go, let free, let out, let loose, release, cede, desert (vt«), quit a job, free (a prisoner), relinquish, vacate (an apartment), wear off (color)

send away, dismiss t?\4^ discharged, be deserted (village), be free (room)

drive out, remove (stains), dislodge, make go away, separate people who are fighting

extricate, disengage,


M\ move (change residence! stray (cattle)


/L^S>,see ^ f )\'^^^Xb) stammer, stutter A'H'.^t^ be lukewarm, be tepid *^n, h^n make to sweat

^^n(D- perspire, sweat sweat, perspiration

feather of bird



?^rj thief

: ) index finger

f^q ^ * 7*^ ^ ^ children s game )

K"^^^ theft, larceny hi) heart, intelligence


^'0'>>tA nark (pay attention to), be mindful, notice, take notice t\'0''^S^Ll take note, notice, make sure, pay attention

t\-n''OhJt;:;tL'^ novel

^/S^J^flO^at will, freely (ooo ■>

Yl/Ct'O heartily, truly, warmly, sincerely

tJ^<i inmost (desire), inner ^Qjl) intelligent ^th'C reason, perspicacity ftn^ cordial ^nhn singe, burn on the surface nCnto*. An^n'^ pepper bums me

wear, put on a dress, get dressed, cover oneself up, dress (vi«)

iSTin/^ dress (vt.), clothe someone

covering* cover (of book) h-n^ , see below

garment, clothes, dress, costume, gown, robe, apparel (sjee ?\nh )

J^i-Ohifiht tailor (see/^i^) suit

-OC A: it^f?^ blanket (D-tl^'fi-nh slip (sleeveless garment)

(O'H^'n h raincoat Ar»4 (B) cause nausea, make

to vomit h^-n bit (of bridle), harness 2^ ^.i; perspicacity, reason (see hi)) cordial (see ) (B) sew a strip of leather

around the edge or the bottom

of a basket

^-n^ horse blanket AniT)<B) sheet (with metal)

day (see also th'f ) ?|)* fleshy sheep *s tail h ^ night ( see al so ^ )

around the clock

fA>>-.<3)^bat ' Afff&(B) butt (sheep), quarrel (men)

f^fffO lock together, vi.

(of arms)




KfC liter ?^»ti» lottery A. Oilmen

roof of the mouth, palate of mouth , hH^(t\ mash (chickpeas)

TjV^ husk (n«)

prince. Highness princess hf] (B) measure (v.)^ J^^J^ ^^*)''


measure (n* ) . measurement, size, proportion [See also 4^An^J Interjection expressing surprise ^7^ halter

Tt'U legal size paper 7^*1^ send, remit, ship off f^^Ti run errands tVi"^ messenger, messenger boy, errand boy, page See also ^Vfl, *^A%T1>]

^^ll JO-that's right

(adv») sharp (exactly), at the precise moment, precisely, promptly, exactly, just (exactly), on the dot ^ Vj.'^'f'^linps'^oct^even as n^*^ with moderation ^^Q\y.h'^ speed limit ^Thh (B) light (pipe, cigarette), set fire to, scald

mess around, agitated, be confused, be disorderly, be dissolute In one's conduct

wanton (behavior), loose (conduct) h'flMi butchery shop

^^^J^ •.^:J.i^ butcher ^yir) smear, anoint, grease, blame on someone^ falsely^ pin a crime on someone Ml. I), touch with its nose, sniff hOlf]^^^ knei^d flour for bread

A^>l nut, almond

^»Vi(n.) measure, measurements, slse, TiOtnlB) change (vt.), shift, proportion (see A>)^ transform, alter, permute,

(adj.) correct, right (correct) switch (direction), trade


(exchange), barter, convert '^/^0^^l be changed, change <vi«), mutate

A 90 m vary (vt«)

t^^C'/T) vary (vi«), exchange

mutually, interchange, rotate

(take turns), fluctuate, be in


}\h9(^^ diversify

change (n«), alteration, exchange^

( ^^^L;^<!^ :;^0'<prevolution) AiO0> changed, altered ^O'^i}) exchange (n«) Acs premutation

A ^Ct'^ change, interchange

^9 «^9<2}/^ ^^''^^^^^^^ which helps to transform or to change f*'\*?9^t> vsuriable, inconsistent, volatile, unstable, spotty (work) ^^t/l90/:|level, adj. (voice) C^i t i) 0 <Ti immutable , invar i able f JJJ ^r^stable ( currency) ^^|s;peak in caressing manner

hr^^H 9^^^®' charm r,^:hh (person)

graceful (dancer),



melodious, mellow (tone)

(see ) ^Hn (B) be tender, be smooth, be soft, be supple f\?\Hn make to be smooth, soft hH-n^fh 9^i^tle (breeze) tfH-n smooth, soft, gentle *f^Hh, ^'IH^ howl (of dog) }\f (B) distinguish, discern, differentiate, discriminate » assort, dissociate « disentangle separate, divide (separate)* recognize, identify fh? be segregated, be separated, differ, be different


be distinguished *

sort, classify, spread apart, decompose (vt«), dismantle (a bookcase) f^^f differ, be different, diverge (of opinion), separate (vi«), be divided (opinion), part (vi»), come apart, be at variance, disjoin (vi«), decompose (vi«), contrast (vi«)f branch off, adjourn (vi*)


BEST COPY AVAIlRBlf Xhjf take aphxtt part ^ 'i*? *• i^A march up and

( separate) « estrange « alienate L^^Whf master the alphabet exactly « precisely . i\ti special « different « distinctive private ( special extraordinary (special)

distinct « various

difference « divergence distinction^ division « discrep^ ancy, variation, conflict (of opinion) « contr£^sdb9t« gap (difference)

characteristic (n*) ^Af* prominent feature « singu- larity (special feature) « hallmark « badge « mark

nfhyznfht specially, especially, chiefly, in particular, particularly

ff ?if peculiar, particular

(special), characteristic (special)

PfAjP varied, different,

dissimilar, variant (adj.)

(^H^f\^ indistinct

on, upon, above

^ |> A superficially


n-— ^ ^ on, on top of, in addition to, in the act of, over, about (in connection with up there

at, on, on top of lhh,H)\f\^ there (in that matter /i^A'.^^ together, at the same time tl^^ on top

T)-"n7j^ above, upwards, beyond, more than, in addition tOf besides

7)ff^fli\,nfl^ to excess, too much, unusually, beyond measure

7iH<ti'.n^^ furthermore, moreover besides, again (moreover) OXi^'fj^ upwards, toward the top, up to f)^^ upper

fn^^ superior (in the

office), chief

)|^T (adjO

n^J,*)^ superiority, mastery

(upper hand)


h^h^^^ only for show (see

birth, Christmas, Nativity <see CD?^Aij

happy birthday! payday

on the first a)^^ child, boy, title of a young nobleman (see ^^A]

young woman ii^;n72T young people



->CSee also t)I;h^\ i)J^nLJi;]

infancy, childhood, boyhood I see

ft^lliplJrl; see h'^ ^ (DhA) (B) hit (the ball), bat i^^p dash, vt« (the waves dashing the boat) ^hlf curved stick fresh (butter) h'^'Tipn^ bamboo shoot

new shoot plane (a board)

grandchild, granddaughter ^hl.^ plane ( carpenter'



daughter-ia-law daughter

new-born baby son

person of good family nephew, niece fXnV.ii J half-brother, half- sister

f^fl^i^iir half-brother, half- sister

ihyf'-h^, cousin !Ci\S^^^:i)^; nephew, niece (Cihf '.iii^ adoptive son


^hf>n rough (plank) hlHC railway station hl^r^ work with ill will and

badly, be lazy

bS'^fft'^ recalcitrant (cattle), refractory (ox) h>aD(B)bridle (a mule), put . on the bit

bridle, rein, bit h^^^ muleteer, who takes care of the stable hlf] (B) be generous, be charitabl ?^^^ generous (donor).


pel C0?<


liberal* bountiful

?M h generosity

h'^hh'^ generosity, liberality «

magnanimity, largess h'^flt) legation Anrn, nock, make fun of,

deride, make a face, loaf h (^-h^ hov, bend (vi.), duck hc^r.hh stretch out (vi«); see also

At5»:fl?>«-.-f ? lie outstretched

h(^'.^?[ flat (roof), broad


dough, batter ^I'l) peel Cvt«), scrape, strip* abrade,

bark (a tree), rub (the skin),

shell (eggs), pare (an apple)

t^m peel (vi.)

7^<T^ bark, peel

^ln<^' parings h,nr| without a saddle, not loaded

(horse or mule) ^ Ci^ bark ( n, ) , peel ( see ?j ci) ) hO)CTi (B) stretch (a hide); see

also ?^ ^ 7i ^

fh{h(7i expand, vi. (tire) ^.t-P rind, parings (see )

hniL (B) paste, patch, glue, affix (a label), stick (a stamp on the envelope) t\(^^ patch (on the tire) smooth hair shave (vt.) "t^Sbi shave (vi.) razor >\j>,J'l eraser

}\u^ toil (v.), work much, grow tired; grow soft ^?^^ soften, tan (hide)* tire out

soft, pliant ^{^^ hard work, toil (n. ), exertion, weariness; softness hk,7ih, chatter, talk too much, talk nonsense ^ 4^ talkative, loquacious, chatterbox

chatter, prattle h^h^h languid, flabby, limp (cardboard)

hf^h^hi^ lethargic condition J^^p"?*, see hl^

as to, with regard to





- ^ alsOf and

middle, center, among (see f^nh^ ^'^ti

n ^oi^fi amid, amidst

n^Uh* meantime (ffi^i^ interior oath, vow, pledge (see<^e/^) be undur oath

^ t\'nn P^^^^ allegiance ^h\^^^ pledge of allegiance ^IrC erud5. te ( man ) , intel lee tual


^pihC erudite (lecture), scholarly (lecture) ^'^ dt K f) handkerchief

^^i^hL^r Pi*y» pardon, mercy, con- fession, forgiveness, amnesty, remission of taxes (see ^9 1.)

y^^H.',>*. (F»i!,L'7 show mercy ^,Sitf '^)^^,lfYear of Grace (i.e. Ethiopian year)

S^'Pn^L"^ ruthlessly

ri.C association, society, organi- zation, corporation, congregation, guild, league (see ^)H^C)

oO/-,co;C-D'i 'i/i^;*->: ^''^^• C League of Nations


^^ifU^t social ^^'Stp tttarop (seal), rubber

stamp, seal (see l^t^ ) ^"iUuh engineer pchf^C orbit

(TMiV^ center, middle (see

n <n)uy]^ among

^Ut]?\? average, middle (adj.),

medial, mean, adj. (halfway

between two extremes) (rf>H yp\ layman , . illiterate

a^h'5.5i',> illiteracy t^'^l^C folder, case of hide (for

a book)

^rH{^l womb, uterus (see ^^"^ ) <ro;j scheme, guess

J"0'/j; flT>^ make a guess

^ti7\'.^o^ hypothesis

^ ?| : ^r' '''^ ' "Y 90 haywire n^7]\C(D<^ guess

^«>^ whcly, entire (see yo/^ )

^ iU whole, full, complete,

plenary, active (member), solid (hour), even (number); see ^*>?j

^A-n^^/V completely, entirely.



wholly 9 throughout » absolutely n^tr fully, in full, throughout n<fthhr''h-^l wholeheartedly

]1\ swear, vow, take a vow, take an oath

oath, vow

i?l fill (vt., vl«), be filled, fill out, fill up, be full of.

full, complete, whole Ji^t^J*'"^ fragmentary ^ in 1 ?i ^ ^ favored, favorite, skilled (in house- hold things)

lh^t\h^ favor, grace (favor) ph^^ asdor^n*) ^nci*%Ch.)

be plentiful, abound, flood (vi*),^<^A?^^t<n);)7J implore, beg overflow (vi«), rise (of river), charge (the iHte^/A

^^(^^) ^^^^^ aiioible) tf»;j swell, vi« (with joy), be alive with

1^*^.%^ make complete, complement, supplement, fill (a need) f'^^Jft there is plenty of it, it exists in abundance ffd^ whole, entire

<r«>/V complete (for other

meanings seeCO*A<) etij^ spring (of watch) n<p?j purely (entirely) tl«p>|:'>A^) by and large, approximately, more or less tf^ J complement (n.) Pfi'^l exhaustive, adequate.


oblong, oval

lew down (a branch),

prune a tree

d'Oh(f»^ enlist, recruit (into the

army), draft (to the army)

i\ ^ (\ conscript

PiDJ^t^'.OJ'Jl.Ci recruit

* ^f^h , iFj ph^^h ^oll (dough )

OnD^'oJ| exercise (in a book);

see h(n>^^

ro^rt (B) return (vt.), bring

back, hand back, give back,

put back, render (give back),

repulse (repel), restore,

repay, reply, answer, respond

f f*^n return ( vi . ) come

back, go back, revert, retro- gress


'^h^tifl redeem (pay back), jP^j?"/ tongue (see^rt )

make give back 7yh<^hi^ilS>') throw up (n>?|?^r'l repeat several times i'^^/^f'l go to and fro* commute (between places), shuttle hn))hh take back and forth, transport

-i^J^L: CT>hfl retaliate, requite (see n^L )

Q^''lL^^:(n>ht^ keep back Vo^^h answer (n*), response, reply (n*), change (in money) 9l>h^ , in T| - O^hft on the side of fy^hf^ again ^i>>^l answer, reply ^^^)?^P time and again, repeatedly



CCjrft?j?'j/| transportation ^^ih answer (n.), response, reply, change (in money); see (^^hh 0 ^ »^ h r'l m answer , talk back r\ C l'' : ^'^ h h tTo^f round- trip ticket cult

/} CG]\ti after (time) <n>^Y) an^®^ isee ii^h'ln) )



^'^^jH'J who has a sharp tongue * Orohht'^^ second-class ,

fftihhf'^'-^Ly^iP^Q. second-rate answer (n*), reply (see

* f h<f^>\ij»<t> spoil (pamper) , cuddle (spoil) <p>^^^ spoiled (child) C^^i^ end (see ) <^h^S' f A)/l<j>-endless

(pl.<^'^V/»1^V ) angel (see ^j) 9 and )

angelic ^^'•.(ro^^'f) archangel

message, mission, errand, communication (message) ; see ?\?:^ft>itJ> special delivery

messenger, emissary, courier, delegate, envoy, representative 4*>^>»'^lf?'? delegation * ^rWi.^itfD/^T] worship, idolize, deify, adore (worship) (r^hV^ divinity

■^^'^^Vi (pl.>»<^*]ft'U)' ) deity, god



if^hXi form* looks* appearance (aspect) « air (appearance), feature* cota» plexion (see ) <ro^7)>. fD^Y]^ iiandsome 0*0^7) '.^(f handsome* good-looking (Tomi'^, ugly (seem^ )

[See also C^2)7)^ft ] *

^^*nir^ beautiful* good (oee<ro|1t1) fS> t)'r) '.C^h'^^cf^ handsome

* Jft^YlT, t'">?i7)f- look* look on, view* watch* consider* give considera- tion* take into consideration* observe* notice* take into account* consult (a dictionary)*

phenomenon* expression

observer* onlooker* spectator* audience (of television) >iffDfttj*5 applicant hc^h'rp itSh>\n\ vhjftdemonstrative pronoun

^^fi?^?) J" application (request) , official letter

trumpet* horn (instrument) ^^?^7»V divinity (see ff^hH)

^^hT^Vif divinity ^ft7)>'.?jAi*l throw a glance . (see V^?)'^ )

refer to* pertain (relate)* respect ^/^7Ljfmeasure (unit)* scale

( concern ) * regard ' ( concern ) see also ^hm-'TtALl h'^7\7)f signify* signal* give evidence* show* indicate* hint* denote* point out* observe*

(measure)* gauge* index (measure); see ^T) *^'^'?®fl;j^soroething which helps to transform or to change (see hOfT))

VLM '.^^TifeXVj^ transformer

express (indicate)* stand for (represent)* submit an application w^/i J characteristic (n*); t^^>]"nt survey* skim through see Ai'

(a book) ^^1^?- prominent feature* special

ph'^Ci indication* sign* gesture* feature* hallmark (see ) signal* cue* symptom* mark* marker* ^^/L^') million



BEST copy mmiE

^ hm, implore

A^^ii Intercede iS'^?^^ intercessor <S'<2>)^<i^ intercession* inter- vention« good services

<rt| rise early < <^ : f fi get up early)

^hilj early (in the morning)* early morning, at daybreak ^hXS ^'v®^ stick (see ) f plane (carpenter's tool)* see 7^*^

0'd^/}> bark (a tree)« depilate* skin* fall out (hair)

f^T\n^ lose che hair* become bald It^^hiTi escape* break out (escape)* break loose* slip from the hand

hii>^i'ir?»(^) miss

rO/'^ffj bald

C^^cii^!^ escape (n.)

I ^ ft

A^^A/T) slip from the hand* escape* be slippery (see also

aT>'^(ri,*i slippery

^2^(^v.>k?)be slippery* slip from

the hands

^"^i^fi^'. ^^'soundly (vigorously)


trigger (of gun) ^'^^irazor* razor blade* (see /^^) <n>. ^tt^'.lhh be slippery ( see

also *«j;iai^) ^hL) passage* goadl (see 'hhL) (njcnj lookout ^ip small boy

^9^J small girl ^iTj^be dissoluble* dissolve* vi«

(salt in watej^ melt» vi«

(of sugar)* thaw* vi» (of ice) *f^9T)^ be soluble (sugar in


^'X'X (vt«)* melt*

vt« (sugar in water)

^^^$»^!(ir so^vt^^'^ sugar* salt in water) o^^^'i^C. professor* master (teacher); see

fiT&jdVnS^ teaching ^d«^*/^7* in ("^^^^'.1%} return

ticket (see on^fi) <nja^^.7» transportation (see^^rt) c:jCiD^7)3^ application (request);

see * ^^y)f

guideline* directive*

instruction* formula* manual


fi£sr copir mmu


^WlxC j recipe ( see U/6- )

m ^ ^ ^ ; w p^U^ headquarters 7Vlh*.»1^^*'i5,;«^;r»/,^ police